The basics of Internet Protocol (IP)

October 8th, 2010 | Posted under The Internet, Web Hosting | No Comments »

The basics of Internet Protocol (IP)

Internet Protocol or IP as we all know is such a protocol, which is widely used for data communication across switched internetwork in the form of packets. Internet Protocol is also referred as TCP/IP that is Transmission Control Protocol or Internet Protocol. Internet Protocol is actually the primary protocol, used as the Internet Layer for “Internet Protocol Suit”. Its main task is to transfer the data in the form of small packets from source computer to destination computer by properly tracking their unique address on internet. Actually when a computer gets connected to internet, the server assigns a unique address to the PC, to distinguish it from other computers known as IP address. Thus, this IP address can be considered as the identity of the PC on connection with internet. The Internet Protocol takes this burden, by defining various addressing structures and methods, to ensure convenient data flow between interconnected PC’s over net.

IP Encapsulation

Data from upper layer is encapsulated in the form of small packets. According to this packet switching technique, circuit setups are not required before sending data from one host to another, which were not previously connected. Thus, Internet Protocol is connectionless encapsulated protocol as shown below.

IP Data Layer

IP Data Layer

Major services

The IP encapsulation property provides data abstraction. Thus, this protocol can be used in heterogeneous networks; connecting PC’s which may be a combination of ATM, FDDI, TOKEN RING, Ethernet card, or Wi-Fi. Each link layer has its own method of addressing specified by “Address Resolution Protocol”.

Intelligent Networking

While construction of network connection, the most important thing to be kept in mind is, Central monitoring and performance measurement of network, to track and maintain the proper working of the network. Thus, “End 2 End” concept has been introduced by this protocol. This reduces the complexity by placing the intelligence of the network at the end of the nodes while data transmission. If match is found then packets are transferred to that PC else the transmission continues until a match is found, thus reducing the space and time complexity of the networks.


However, due to intelligent networking the reliability of network connection reduces. Thus increases the chance of corruption in data, loss of data packets while transmission, duplicity while delivering and improper order of delivery of packets. However, the Internet Protocol Version 4 has come up with checksum technique taking place at routing nodes, thus increasing the reliability of the intelligent network.

IP routing and addressing description

The most complex part of INTERNET PROTOCOL is IP routing and addressing. Addressing determines how the destination computer becomes the assigned IP and in what way subs network IP addresses are grouped and divided together. Routing is done by the hosts with the help of inter-network routers by “Internal and External Gateway Protocols” as shown the diagram.

Thus we can say Internet Protocol is the most important determining element which defines the word “INTERNET”. The most common protocol used these days is IPv4; here 4 stands for version number four. Thus IP has given a new definition to the world of networking by setting up an intelligent, reliable and connectionless encapsulated networking system, to connect computers from every corner of the world.

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AJAX in GOOGLE – a GLAMOROUS approach to Web Application

September 30th, 2010 | Posted under Internet Trends, The Internet | No Comments »

AJAX in GOOGLE – a Glamorous approach to Web Application

With the introduction of google as a search engine, the world of networking underwent a revolution towards quick and dependable net browsing throughout the world. Today people depend on google search engine completely for any kind of information they want from the net. The role of AJAX in google have been very significant in the last few years as AJAX programming helped to bring bright changes  towards faster googling. AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX was created as a technique for creating interactive and effective web application. Unlike typical web pages, which load it completely before content becomes different, AJAX updates the web pages simultaneously, by downloading small quantity of data from the server behind the scene. AJAX basically uses CSS, JavaScript and XML for its complete working. The popularity of AJAX increased since Google started using AJAX in Gmail, Google Maps, etc.

AJAX in Google- a Glamorous approach to Web Application

The application of AJAX in google is numerous including

Google Groups, Google Maps and Google Suggest. AJAX allows google to put on innovative and programmatic means of web searching. The google AJAX API’s including Search, Feeds, Languages and libraries.

AJAX Search application

It puts up Google search in one’s web page along with JavaScript as its base. A simple but dynamic search box can be embedded and search results appear on your web page.

AJAX in GOOGLE - a GLAMOROUS approach to Web Application

AJAX Feeds application

AJAX application along with JavaScript can be used to download public Atom, RSS or media RSS feed. This helps in mashing of feeds with the content and other APIs like- Google Maps. It has made mashing up easy by using JavaScript for mash up, rather than using complex server proxies.

Google Map API

The wide arrays of APIs in google maps helps in firmly fixing robust functionality and everyday usage of google maps. It also allows in embedding one’s own data on top of the google maps.

AJAX in GOOGLE - a GLAMOROUS approach to Web Application

AJAX language API

In order to translate or detect the language of words in a text AJAX language API can be used. AJAX uses JavaScript for encrypting words. There is also the facility of transliteration in the text area of the web page. In the absence of offline translations, this AJAX language API proves to be the most reliable and easy to use to translate and detect language.

AJAX in Gmail

An open source function for Gmail has been written using .NET framework and on top there is the API providing basic remote Gmail application. All the connections and programming related to gmailing is AJAX based.

AJAX in GOOGLE - a GLAMOROUS approach to Web Application

AJAX libraries API

The AJAX library is a network of content distribution and architecture for the most famous, open-source JavaScript libraries. GOOGLE API loader’s google.load () increases the application’s speed and also provides the opportunity of access to a growing list of libraries.

Google suggest, google maps are the truest example of the new approach to web application using AJAX. For instant application of everything, without waiting for the page to reload, has been possible only with AJAX in google. In short, AJAX has made google quite “Glamorous” search engine.

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XML simplified – understanding the structure

September 10th, 2010 | Posted under The Internet, Web Design Tutorials | No Comments »

XML simplified – understanding the


XML is actually an”Extensible Markup Language” which follows a set of certain rules to encode documents in machine language. The main goals of XML language are easy usability, generality and simplicity while working on internet. It is mainly used for transportations and storage of data rather than displaying it unlike HTML. This concept is defined in XML 1 specification marketed by W3C. All the tags used are user defined. The most popular XML language so far developed includes Atom, Soap, and XHTML, ms office, apple’s iWork, open office and RSS. All the information required by the user is written on the tags. One can also design his software for receiving, sending and displaying information.

General format of XML document

XML simplified - understanding the structure

Key Terminologies

Key terminologies are basically XML Specifications, which are very essential while writing XML documents. They are as follows:

Unicode Character

XML documents are basically a collection of characters in the form of strings. Almost every Unicode character happens to appear in every XML documents.

XML simplified - understanding the structure

Grouping of characters

Characters of XML documents are subdivided into group’s content and markup. These content and markup characters are easily distinguished by simple application of syntactic rules. Those strings which begin with ‘<’ character or end with’>’ character or those beginning with ‘&’ and ending with ‘;’ character are considered as markup language. Rest all strings with are not markup are known as content.

Processor and its application

Processor simply analyses the markup text and delivers to the application this structured information. Specifications actually places the requirement to the XML processor, thus coordination the work of the processor by directing it what to do and what not to do. The application is outside the scope of the specifications but is coordinated by processor. Thus due to this feature of the XML processor it is considered as XML parser.


Markup construction begins with ‘<’ character and ends with ‘>’character. Tagging within this markup text have three types that is start tags coded as <text>, end tag coded as</text> and at last the empty tag coded as <text/>.


The element is the most logical component. It begins with start tags, and then finally ends with matched end-tags. It may consist of only empty element tags. The characters in between start tags and the end-tags, are called element’s content. It may contain the markup and other elements, collectively known as child elements.


In XML, attributes are a part of element which helps in providing additional regarding that element. Thus attributes can be imagined as adjectives defining the elements present with it. Attributes as two fields name and value, which always occurs simultaneously. The name field declares the object and value field defines the nature of the object.  They are two types of attributes one is mandatory and the other is optional.

XML simplified - understanding the structure

XML Declaration

Every XML document begins with XML Declaration, thus helping us in knowing the version name of the document.


XML can be used to store data inside html document, and this keeps data separated from html document and hence is helpful in using the html for formatting and display

It can create data that can be read by different application and hence reduce complexity.

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A look on the Semantic Web world – the thing of the future

September 7th, 2010 | Posted under Internet Trends, The Internet | No Comments »

A look on the Semantic Web world – the thing of the future

These days internet has become so much important part and parcel of our life, that one cunt imagine this world without internet. Internet is one the most important invention that the world has ever seen, as it helps in connecting computers from every corner of the world. This Semantic Web is a collection of many interdisciplinary projects, started by the brilliant masterminds in computer science, the main purpose of which is to revolutionize the World Wide Web that is Internet. Though scientists from all over the world are working on this project but the main focus and attention on this cumulative project is given by the scientists of United States, Europe and Asia. Because of this project, various advanced technologies, standard protocols and other important developments are coming at a rapid rate, thus changing the definition of Internet for the benefit of advanced generation, keeping in consideration their foremost requirement.
The foremost important objective of Semantic Web is to search for web resources and web sites not by using simple keywords and putting them of “Google Search Engine” as done today but by understanding the description and capabilities of the contents. Thus Semantic Web actually works on the concept of artificial intelligence, to understand the meaning of the keyword before searching.
Semantic Web Components:
Semantic Web has all the standard tools of RDF scheme, RDF, XML Schema, XML, and OWL. All these tools are well oriented in the “Semantic Web Stack”.
OWL describes the various tools of Semantic Web as follows:


This provides all the elementary syntax of the structure present within documents. But this does not associate any semantic meaning with the contents present within it.

XML Schema

This tool provides Semantic Web with all the structures and elements present within the XML documents and also help in restricting it.


This language tool is mainly meant for providing data model expression to Semantic Web with reference to the data resources and its relationship with other resources. Actually the RDF model is represented as XML syntax.

RDF Schema

This language actually extends the concept of RDF. This is actually a vocabulary which is used for defining the class RDF data resources and its properties and also helps the Semantic Web to generalize the hierarchical status of such classes and their properties.


This language helps in providing more vocabulary to describe the status of such classes and their properties like relation within classes, among others, cardinality, rich typing properties, equality, enumerated classes and nature of properties.


This is actually a query language like oracle and also a user defined protocol thus helping Semantic Web to manage the data resources properly.

A look on the Semantic Web world - the thing of the future

The main objective of Semantic Web is to describe the data and to associate a suitable meaning with it, involving a more complex XHTML code subdivided. It addition to this it supports the semantic functionality which introduces the concept of “dynamic networking model” to train the database with more appropriate vocabulary with changing need. Thus the future of today’s web world lies within the hands of the Semantic Web World.

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Legal issues one must know before domain registering

September 7th, 2010 | Posted under The Internet, Web Hosting | No Comments »

Legal issues one must know before domain registering

Domain laws can be quite complex and the consequences of infringement can be far reaching. As such, there are certain issues all domainers must understand before registering a domain.


The registrars’ agreements do not include any ownership rights in the domains they the domain name is simply leased.


Be careful about copyright and trademark infringement particularly when parking your domain and in the ads that appears. Again, a domain name owner should obtain a trademark registration on their domain name to avoid losing a domain name under the InterNIC domain name dispute policy.


To avoid legal hassles, one should turn to a registrar that provides sufficient security since legal redress in cases of spam and scam is quite expensive and impractical. Also most registrars are not helpful, especially in legal matters, which is obvious, considering them eager amount they charge.

US Law Over Reaches International Boundaries

US Law over reaches international boundaries because the registries for many TLDs are located in the United States. This simply implies that if you are doing anything controversial with your domain; try to avoid any connection with the US.

As a domainer, one does not have that many legal rights. Therefore, it is better to play it safe with your domains.

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The Logic Behind Digital Certificates

August 19th, 2010 | Posted under The Internet, Web Design Tutorials | No Comments »

The Logic Behind Digital Certificates

A digital certificate is commonly referred to as a public key certificate. It is an electronic document or attachment, which makes use of a digital signature to confirm the identity of a person. It contains information related to the user such as the name of his organization, his address, Personal account number and other relevant details. The signature, either of the user himself or other users bears a testimony to the fact that the concerned documents and the public key belong to the same individual.

A typical digital certificate consists of the following details:

Serial Number

Serial Number is used to uniquely identify the certificate.


Subject bears the name of the person or entity identified.


It is an algorithm used to create the signature.


Issuer declares the name of the entity that verified the information and issued the certificate.


It contains the date the certificate is first valid from.


It depicts the expiration date.


This declares the purpose of the public key

With the advent of advanced software it is now very easy to forge printed documents. Therefore it is not enough to place our trust in these documents while dealing with important issues.

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Top four viruses that shook the internet

July 2nd, 2010 | Posted under Internet Trends, The Internet | 1 Comment »

Top four viruses that shook the internet

While computer viruses have been causing mayhem in the cyber world for quite some time, some of them have certainly stood out for their ingenuity in making, spectacular methods and scale of damage in the virtual as well as the real world. Here are four of the most deadly viruses that literally shook the world wide web-

I love u

This multipurpose virus hit users through emails, IRC chats, files transfers and affected the registry. It was supposed to have originated in Philippines and caused an estimated damage of 8-10 billion USD.


Developed by David L. Smith in New Jersey, who was later convicted, the virus operated through Microsoft Outlook and harvested the victims address book to forward itself to more victims which killed a lot of email servers.

My Doom Internet Worm

It originated in 2004 and worked in two stages. In the first stage, it infected Operating Systems and made them vulnerable and in the second stage, a few months later, it crashed and congested search engines like Google, thereby slowing them down.


Nimda spelt backwards it reveals its prime targets: ‘admin’ and servers. It holds the record for the fastest spreading virus and used up to 5 different methods to infect computers, servers and websites.

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