Port Description and Functioning
Port is a terminal or a location present in a system through which data is exchanged. The internal data of the computer can be accessed by another external device and data can be input to the processor memory from other mass storage devices. Port is like an interface between the processor and the external device. Different systems have different type of ports. They even vary in number in every system. Each port is assigned with a port number and has its own specific function. Port can also be realized as software which is application specific when used for communication purposes. In this case the port number and the Internet Protocol addresses also known as IP address are the main features that help in the identification of a port. Port numbers can also be observed at times in the URL’s of different websites. The port assigned to HTTP is port 80.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority also abbreviated as IANA assigns the IP address and port addresses. They even categorize the port numbers into different sections which include dynamic ports also known as private ports, registered ports and ports that are well known which range from 0 to 1023.
FTP is assigned with port 21 while Telnet is assigned with port no 22. The most common ports are port 80 for HTTP and port 25 for SMTP.
Port 80 description
It is the port assigned to Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). This port receives data from the web client and the client is supposed to connect to the web server using this port. This port is the most widely used port as it connects a user to the World Wide Web famously known as the ‘WWW’. When we type a address on the address bar of the web browser then it connects to port 80 and waits to get connected to that location. This port is very prone to attack my malware as it is most widely used. Hence this port should never be kept opened if it is not being used.
Port 25 description
This port is assigned to Simple Mail Transfer Protocol abbreviated as SMTP. This port is used for that transmission of e-mails via the internet. It is utilized by e-mail servers in order to send and receive e-mails. Some mail servers not using port 25 can connect to it and send their mails using a technique called relaying. There are selected ISP’s which do not allow relaying to take place.
Port 20 description
This port is designated to FTP also known as File Transfer Protocol. This port is also very commonly used. Its basic usage is for the purpose of transferring files i.e. uploading or downloading them from a server. After the file to be downloaded is selected it is connected to port 20 and the file is searched and then downloading takes place. The other FTP port is port 21 but it is used for a totally different purpose i.e. commanding.
There are many ports associated with the WWW which help in performing different functions or actions with the help of the internet like accessing the web pages, mails, downloads and uploads, commanding etc which make life convenient.
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